Policies to Foster Entrepreneurship: Elements from the European Experience in Micro-Meso-Macro Terms*
Purpose: The article aims to present policy practices on a micro-meso-macro level and to identify, through implemented policies in different European countries, if there are signs of divergence or convergence at the micro, meso, and macro levels. Design/Methodology/Approach: To this end, it focuses first on analyzing the contemporary significance of entrepreneurship enhancement policies and, secondly, on how they relate to multilevel analysis. In this context, after proposing a repositioned multilevel interpretation of the socio-economic system in terms of the “competitiveness web,” it uses as a case study different country of the European South affected by the economic crisis and presents their political reforms over the last years. The research uses the data of the “Doing Business” report series by the World Bank to present their business-related reforms. Findings: It appears that the regulations of these countries primarily focus on macro-economic and macro-social measures to enhance the potential of their business environment. Besides, the “Doing Business” methodology that focuses on selected policy areas also appears to neglect micro- and meso-level issues. To this end, the approach of competitiveness web can provide a comprehensive conceptual policy framework for enhancing entrepreneurship. Practical Implications: The micro-meso-macro filter, which can be used to detect entrepreneurship policies, is useful for identifying new entrepreneurship enhancement policies and proposing a repositioned conceptual framework of fostering entrepreneurship. Originality/Value: The study can contribute to the academic debate of exploring policies to foster entrepreneurship and conceptualizes them through a micro-meso-macro filter.